"Recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics"
Regular checkups at your pediatrician's office or local health clinic are an important way to keep children healthy.
By making sure that your child gets immunized on time, you can provide the best available defense against many dangerous childhood diseases. Immunizations protect children against: hepatitis B, polio, measles, mumps, rubella (German measles), pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal infections, and chickenpox. All of these immunizations need to be given before children are 2 years old in order for them to be protected during their most vulnerable period. Are your child's immunizations up-to-date?
The chart below includes immunization recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Remember to keep track of your child's immunizations -- it's the only way you can be sure your child is up-to-date. Also, check with your pediatrician or health clinic at each visit to find out if your child needs any booster shots or if any new vaccines have been recommended since this schedule was prepared.
If you don't have a pediatrician, call your local health department. Public health clinics usually have supplies of vaccine and may give shots free.
1. Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). All infants should receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine soon after birth and before hospital discharge; the first dose may also be given by age 2 months if the infant’s mother is HBsAg-negative. Only monovalent HepB can be used for the birth dose. Monovalent or combination vaccine containing HepB may be used to complete the series. Four doses of vaccine may be administered when a birth dose is given. The second dose should be given at least 4 weeks after the first dose, except for combination vaccines which cannot be administeredbefore age 6 weeks. The third dose should be given at least 16 weeks after the first dose and at least 8 weeks after the second dose. The last dose in the vaccination series (third or fourth dose) should not be administered before age 6 months.
Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothersshould receive HepB and 0.5 mL Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) within 12 hours of birth at separate sites. The second dose is recommended at age 1-2 months. The last dose in the vaccination series should not be administered before age 6 months. These infants should be tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs at 9-15 months of age.Infants born to mothers whose HBsAg status is unknownshould receive the first dose of the HepB series within 12 hours of birth. Maternal blood should be drawn as soon as possible to determine the mother's HBsAg status; if the HBsAg test is positive, the infant should receive HBIG as soon as possible (no later than age 1 week). The second dose is recommended at age 1-2 months. The last dose in the vaccination series should not be administered before age 6 months.
2. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP). The fourth dose of DTaP may be administered as early as age 12 months, provided 6 months have elapsed since the third dose and the child is unlikely to return at age 15-18 months. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td)is recommended at age 11-12 years if at least 5 years have elapsed since the last dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine. Subsequent routine Td boosters are recommended every 10years.
3.Haemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine.Three Hib conjugate vaccines are licensed for infant use. If PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB®or ComVax®[Merck]) is administered at ages 2 and 4 months, a dose at age 6 months is not required. DTaP/Hib combination products should notbe used for primary immunization in infants at ages 2, 4 or 6 months, but can be used as boosters following any Hib vaccine.
4. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). The second dose of MMR is recommended routinely at age 4-6 years but may be administered during any visit, provided at least 4 weeks have elapsed since the first dose and that both doses are administered beginning at or after age 12 months. Those who have not previously received the second dose should completethe schedule by the 11-12 year old visit.
5. Varicella vaccine.Varicella vaccine is recommended at any visit at or after age 12 months for susceptible children, i.e. those who lack a reliable history of chickenpox. Susceptible persons aged =13 years should receive two doses, given at least 4 weeks apart.
6. Pneumococcal vaccine. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugatevaccine(PCV)is recommended for all children age 2-23 months. It is also recommended for certain children age 24-59 months. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV)is recommended in addition to PCV for certain high-risk groups. See MMWR2000;49(RR-9);1-38.
7. Hepatitis A vaccine.Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children and adolescents in selected states and regions, and for certain high-risk groups; consult your local public health authority. Children and adolescents in these states, regions, and high risk groups who have not been immunized against hepatitis A can begin the hepatitis A vaccination series during any visit. The two doses in the series should be administered at least 6 months apart. See
8. Influenza vaccine. Influenza vaccine is recommended annually for children age =6 months with certain risk factors (including but not limited toasthma, cardiac disease, sickle cell disease, HIV, diabetes, and household members of persons in groups at high risk; see MMWR 2002;51(RR-3);1-31), and can be administered to all others wishing to obtain immunity. In addition, healthy children age 6-23 months are encouraged to receive influenza vaccine if feasible because children in this age group are at substantially increased risk for influenza-related hospitalizations. Children aged =12 years should receive vaccine in a dosage appropriate for their age (0.25 mL if age 6-35months or 0.5 mL if aged =3 years). Children aged =8 years who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time should receive two doses separated byat least
For additional information about vaccines, including precautions and contraindications for immunization and vaccine shortages, please visit the National Immunization Program Website at www.cdc.gov/nip or call the National Immunization Information Hotlineat 800-232-2522 (English) or 800-232-0233 (Spanish).
Approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (www.cdc.gov/nip/acip), the American Academy of Pediatrics (www.aap.org), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (www.aafp.org).